Friday, 21 April 2017

19 April 2017 Current Affairs

1. Center launches training programme for Women Panchayat Leaders
The Center launched a training programme for Women Panchayat leaders to skill and administers them so that they can give special emphasis on efficient usage of funds for achieving their overall development. The National Commission for Women (NCW) with help of Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai has developed training modules for empowering these elected women. They will get training under experts from the National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (NIRD and PR) in Hyderabad.

 2. Kerala Govt to give Pension to Circus Artistes
The CPT (M) led LDF government in Kerala has decided to provide pension to former circus artistes in the state and allocated Rs. 1.13 crore for the scheme. Kerala was giving a nominal pension of Rs. 1200 to all circus artists who had a ration card and had been working in the state for at least 30 years. Hundreds of artistes from the State Working in different Parts of the country do not come under this scheme.

 3. Australia Abolishes Work Visa Policy 457 Used Largely By Indian
Australian Govt will replace its popular 457 Visa that brings temporary foreign workers to the country with a new version that will recruit only the “best and the brightest in the nation interest” The move to abolish the Visa, used by over 95,000 temporary workers, a majority of them Indians, aims at tackling the growing unemployment in the country.

 4. Kerala Govt to give Pension to Circus Artistes
The CPT (M) led LDF government in Kerala has decided to provide pension to former circus artistes in the state and allocated Rs. 1.13 crore for the scheme. Kerala was giving a nominal pension of Rs. 1200 to all circus artists who had a ration card and had been working in the state for at least 30 years. Hundreds of artistes from the State Working in different Parts of the country do not come under this scheme.

 5. Union Govt puts an end to lal batti on VIP Vehicles
Union  Cabinet on 19 April 2017 decided prohibiting the use of red beacons (lal batti) on all vehicles except for certain exempted categories. The only five categories would be allowed to use it are President, Vice – President, Prime Minister, Chief Justice of India, and the Speaker of Lok Sabha. The decision comes into effect from May 1, 2017. If directed the states to amend the Motor Vehicle Rules to restrict the use of the red beacon and impose an exemplary fine on those who misused it.

18 April 2017 Current Affairs

1.Sebastian Vettel wins Bahrain F1 Grand Prix
Sebastian Vettel has taken out the Bahrain Grand Prix from Lewis Hamilton. The victory was Vettel’s second of the season after the four time world champion won the opener in Australia. Hamilton who won in China last weekend, crossed the finish line 6.6 seconds behind. Vettel’s win lifted him to 68 points, with Hamilton second on 61 points. Thus Ferrari’s sebastian Vettel wins Bahrain Formula one Grand Prix.

2.Philippine President Duterte wins Time 100 Reader Poll
Rodrigo Duterte, the President of Philippines has won this year’s Time Magazine’s Readers Readers Poll of the 100 most influential people in the world. Duterte received 5% to total, Yes Votes. He maintained the lead, right from the beginning of the poll. Time 100 Readers Poll closed on April 16, 2017. Time 100 Readers Poll  is an online server conducted by Time Magazine, under which the readers are asked to vote for probable contenders of the list.

 3.International Day For Monuments and Sites April 18
International Day for Monuments and Sites is observed on April 18, 2017. The International Day for Monuments and Sites is held each year around the world with different types of activities, including visits to monuments and heritage sites, conferences, round tables and newspaper articles. The aim is to promote awareness about the diversity of cultural heritage of humanity and efforts required their protection and conservation.

 4. Prakash Javadekar launches Portal and Mobile App of RUSA
The Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) under the aegis of the Ministry of Human Resources Development, on 17 April 2017 launched its own portal and mobile app. The portal and app were officially launched by Union Minister of Human Resources Development Prakash Javadekar in New Delhi. The portal is a one-stop location for states. Higher Education Plans, the decision of the State’s Higher Education Councils and details of the resources.

 5. Pullela Gayatri Wins twin crown is Jakarta
Pullela Gopichand a National Badminton Coach daughter has won both single and double crown at the Pembangunan Jaya Raya Junior Grand Prix in Jakarta on 16th April 2017. Gayathri teamed up with Samiya in doubles title and win over Indonesian Players of Kelly Larissa and Shelandry Vyola. Gayatri and Samiya both trained at Pullela Gopichand Academy in Hyderabad. She has won under – 15 doubles title.

17 April 2017 Current Affairs

1.Dr. Hanchinal receives M.S. Swaminathan Award
The 6th addition of M.S. Swaminathan Award for agriculture has been given to Rayappa Ramappa Hanchinal Chairperson of protection of plant varieties and Farmers Rights Authority. This award has been given to Dr. Hanchinal for his contributions and continuous efforts in areas of seed production technology, crop improvement for hot and very hot dry environments and intellectual protection rights in plant varieties. This Award was presented by C.Parthasarathy Secretary, Agriculture and cooperation Govt of Telangana.

 2. Telangana passes bill to hike reservations for Muslim and STs
The Telangana passes bill to hike reservation for Muslims and STs. Under this bill the reservation for socially backward people and Muslim people has been increased. For Muslim 4% to 12% increased and for Scheduled Tribes 6% to 10%. In includes total Quotas in government jobs and educational institutions, The total Quota in the state now increase to 62%. The bill will be included in the 9th Schedule of the constitution.

3. Suresh Prabhu launches new rail coach with glass roof, GPS
Suresh Prabhu inaugurated the new Vista Dome Coach which has glass roof, LED lights, GPS based info system and rotating seats among other features. While flagging of the train with Vistadome Coaches between Visakhapatnam and Araku through video conferencing from Rail Sadan in Bhubaneswar. The video coaches features will enable tourists to enjoy scenic beauty along the Journey. The coach also has a glass domed ceiling, automatic sliding doors and a multi tier luggage rack.

 4Sai Praneeth won maiden Super Series title in singapore
Sai Praneeth has won the title match of Men’s singles at Singapore Open Badminton beating his compatriot Kidambi Srikanth. In the Singapore Open Badminton tournament Sai Praneeth won his maiden Super Series Title. Praneeth prevailed 17-21, 21-17, 21-12 in a 54 minute contest, which was the first all- Indian Super Series final in the history of the game.

 5. Madhya Pradesh to ban polythene Carry Bags From May 1
Madhya Pradesh government decided to ban plastic polythene bags across the state from May 1. The consumption of polythene bags results in a large number of cow deaths. The state cabinet, chaired by the Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan has accorded nod to the proposal of imposing the ban on plastic/polythene bags across the state from 1st May. Besides, the plastic polythene bags are also harmful for the environment.

16 April 2017 Current Affairs

Farooq Abdullah wins Srinagar Lok Sabha by poll
National Conference President Farooq Abdullah on 15 April 2017 won the Srinagar Lok Sabha by poll after defeating PDP Candidate Nazir Ahmad Khan by around 10,000 votes. Abdullah had faced his first electoral defeat in his over 35-year long political career when he had lost to PDP’s Tariq Hameed Karra in 2014 General elections. Karra had later resigned from Lok Sabha.

Punjab CM bans names of Ministers, MLA’s on inaugural stones
Punjab CM Captain Amarinder Singh prohibited the inclusion of names of any government functionaries, including ministers and MLA’s on foundation stones and inaugural plaques. It aimed at building a stronger connect between the government and the people by removing the VIP culture barriers. The Chief Minister’s order comes after state cabinet minister Sadhu Singh Dharamsot allegedly threatened to suspend a school principal on finding his name was third on the inaugural stone.

Ganga patrol team planned to check pollution
The government is planning to recruit IPS officers, personnel of the Army, paramilitary forces and state police who have retired from service for raising an exclusive Ganga Voluntary Force. It is expected to prevent water pollution and desecration of the holy river. The proposed central force will police the entire stretch of the Ganga (2,525 km) in 5 states Uttarakhand, Uttarpradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal. Which are on the mainstem of the river.

Former Bihar Minister Narsingh Baitha Passes Away
Former Bihar Minister Narsingh Baitha Passed away at patna after prolonged illness, He was 100. Baitha was elected MLA for three times from Bagha reserved seat since 1962. Later, he represented Shikarpur reserved seat in West champaran in the State Legislative Assembly in 1985. He was minister in Congress government two times headed by Daroga Prasad Rai and Jagannath Mishra.

“Gramin Krishi Mausam Seva” launched in India
India Meteorological Department (IMD), Ministry of Earth Sciences in implementing Agrometeorological Advisory Services (AAS) under the scheme Gramin Krishi Mausam Seva (GKMS) in the country. GKMS of IMD is rendered twice a week to farmers in collaboration with State Agricultural Universities (SAUS) Institutions of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), IITs etc. District level weather forecast for next 5 days in respect of Rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and clouds, crop specific advisories are provided to farmers.

15 April 2017 Current Affairs

Haryana Govt launched “Operation Durga” to ensure women safety
Haryana Govt has been launched “Operation Durga” to ensure women safety in the state. Under this operation, teams formed by the Chief Minister’s Flying Squad visited public places such as schools, colleges, bus stands and railway stations and caught persons including in crime activities against women like eve-teasing, stalking, harassment and other such activities.

UP Govt, centre sign MoU for “Power for All” Scheme
Uttar Pradesh Government and  the center have signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the ‘Power for All’ Scheme in the state. The aim of this scheme is to ensure 24 hour quality power supply in the state by October 2018 and electric connection to every house and agricultural field by 2019. The agreement was inked in presence of Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath and Union Minister of state for Power Piyush Goyal and UP Power Minister Shrikant Sharma.

Andhra Pradesh to introduce “Ammaku Vandanam” in Schools
A Unique Programme to pay tribute to mothers will be introduced in the government – run schools in Andhra Pradesh from this year. Under this programme Mother Worship the school Children will take the blessings of their mothers and may also do Paada Pooja. The government also decided to implement the programme in 5,000 high Schools across the state from the academic year 2017-18. The mothers would be invited to the schools on a specific day every year for the special function.

Union Govt launches Aadhaar Seeding Application
The Union Ministry of Labour & Employment has launched Aadhaar Seeding Application for efficient service delivery and widening the reach of Employees Provident Fund (EPF) benefits. It was launched at the 2017th special meeting of the central Board of Employees provident Fund (CBEPF/EPFO) in New Delhi under the Chairmanship of Minister of state for Labour of Employment Bandaru Dattatreya.

Alia Bhatt features on Forbes 30 under 30 Asia list
Actress Alia Bhatt has featured in Forbes 30 Under 30 Asia list. She is the only Bollywood Actress who has made it to this year. The actress has got a place in Forbes Under 30 Asia list. Alia got her name in the elite list after doing some of the highest earning films and gave best performances in recent times. Alia Bhatt has been acted in over 20 high earning Bollywood movies.

President Pranab Mukherjee approves GST Bill
President Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to the landmark Goods and Services Tax (GST) bill, a major step towards rolling out the new indirect tax effect from April 1 Next Year. This bill was passed Unanimously by the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha in August. After the president assents, the government will notify the GST Council, Union Finance Minister will head the council, which will comprise state Finance Ministers.

Girish Chandra SAXENA, Former J & K Governor Dies
Former Jammu & Kashmir governor Girish Chandra Saxena, lovingly called Gary died on 14 April 2017 after a brief illness. He was 90. Saxena’s brother Naresh Chandra, former Cabinet Secretary and ambassador to the US. He was born in Agra in 1928 and is survived by his wife and two daughters.

Two billion people drinking contaminated water WHO
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently published a report, Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLASS) 2017, that states that nearly two billion people currently use contaminated water. This contaminated water is also a major factor in several neglected tropical diseases, including intestinal worms, schistosomiasis and trachoma. As per the report, countries have increased their budgets for water, sanitation and hygiene.

 Trupti Jain wins Cartier Women’s Initiative Award
An Indian environmental engineer Trupti Jain won this year’s prestigious “Cartier Women’s Initiative Award” in Singapore for providing women working on farms with water management solutions and protecting small farmers against droughts and flash floods. Trupti Jain, 45 was one among six winners chosen from over 120 countries and were selected by an independent international jury.

North Korea starts celebrating birthday of countries Founder
North Korean leader Kim Jong un started a massive parade in the capital city on 15 April 2017. The country celebrating the birthday of Jong’s late grandfather North Korea Founder Kim II Sung. North Korea put on a huge military spectacle on the founder’s birthday, parading its series of new and technologically advanced missiles in front of Kim Jong Un and in a defiant show of force in front of the world.

Thursday, 20 April 2017


Four categories of resources are suggested as those given up by individuals as payment (beyond
money) in exchange for product offerings: time, effort, lifestyle and psyche. Marketers may
profitably assume that target consumers are aware of these social "price tags" fastened to every form
of exchange (Fine 1981 a).

A good many expressions synonymous with the aphorism "time is money" have achieved cliche
status. What they all mean is that time expended in an activity represents benefits foregone because
that time was not spent in some alternative manner -- the economic notion of opportunity loss or
opportunity cost. The social price tag labeled "time" is perceived by the consumer to inform him or
her of the opportunity loss or benefits to be foregone because of the rime spent in making a purchase
(at least in a market society; in many societies time is nor considered so valuable). It has been said
that important intellectual progress occurs at a time when poetry is popular. But adopters of the idea

of poetry must pay a time price to write. read and listen -- a price that many harried postindustrial
individuals just cannot afford to pay.

Expending one's effort in exchange for a product offering is merely bartering one's services in
that exchange. This can take the form of physical action, as in the case of maintenance assistance by
a parent at a cooperative nursery school, or in the travail of participating in an alcoholism program.
Continual or repeated payout of effort results in fatigue that is heightened if the effort does not return
satisfactory reward. Homans (1958) points out that a person thereby "incurs aversive stimulation or
what I shall call 'cost' for short … Fatigue is an example of a 'cost'"
Effort is also sacrificed in giving information in an exchange; information is an important human
resource (Dixon 1978) considered as a product , is in some contexts a price. As an
illustration, a wholesaler's salesman is welcomed by retailers who accept his knowledge and news of
the industry in payment for their allegiance. The salesman is glad to pay this social price, even to the
point of making a deliberate effort to amass a store of gossip with which to compensate his clients
for their valued friendship. Another example is the exchange of a lighter prison sentence for the
police informer who pays for that product with information.

Modification of one's lifestyle is a price paid in many forms of exchange, as in adopting the idea
of marriage, for one example. While some may thrive on diversity and change, most individuals
look upon the prospect of disruption of the status quo with at least some trepidation and this is true
whether the anticipated change is for the better or for the worse. The social price of advancement to
a better job could be the diminution or elimination of comraderie with former colleagues. The
prospect of having to make new friends is an awesome assignment for some people. A touching
example is given by Mead (1955):
The iron plough has sometimes been resisted as an assault upon the land. In villages of the United
Provinces of India, it threatens established human relationships. A man inherits a relationship to a
carpenter family whose task it is to make and repair the plough. This family is always invited to the
farmer's feasts and the women are given saris. The relationship, the "pay," the gifts continue whether
ploughs are made or not ... Perhaps the farmer can be taught to repair his own plough, but it would
mean personal reorientation as well as a change in the valued relationship structure 

One reason for the recent increase in single parent homes is that many are unwilling to pay the
price of lifestyle change in exchange for marriage. As Levy and Zaltman (1975) expressed it, "A
common complaint is that married men dislike paying the price of saying 'I love you,' and in
consequence, many marital deals fall through"

Part of the price of an exchange often amounts to a forfeit of self-esteem, pride, identity, selfassertion, privacy, control, freedom from fear or risk, or other such losses affecting a person's peace
of mind; they are thus grouped under the heading of psyche. When the American Cancer Society
undertook to distribute Hemocult kits for self-screening of colon-rectum cancer, two major obstacles
were encountered. One was hesitancy to supply a smear of stool as part of the examination. Then
too the program met with a great deal of reluctance to risk the possibility of learning the grim truth of
affliction. These two psychic factors are readily seen as comprising a high social price to be paid for
cancer prevention as an exchange.

Also included in this category is the contribution of one's attention to something -- one "pays"
attention. Bagozzi (1975) points out that "an exchange can occur between a person and a television
program.” The "person gives his attention, support, potential for purchase, etc.” Earlier, Robertson
(1970) had carried this idea still further, adding to attention the social price of loss of self-assertion:

In attending to communication, the individual incurs costs and receives rewards -- an exchange
process exists. Costs incurred in attending to mass-media advertising include time and submission to
"influence," since it is recognized that advertising is persuasive and one-sided. The reward involved
is information, which may be meaningful to the consumer and which may be of value to him in his
consumption behavior ... It can be proposed that, basically, communication will occur up to the point
at which marginal reward from an additional unit of communication equals the marginal cost attached


Although ideas and issues are often spoken of as being great or weighty, they have no mass,
cannot be physically delivered and are not ordinarily exchanged for cash. Yet, for a marketing
transaction to take place, something must be paid out by the purchaser. This chapter delves into
price as a marketng factor and calls attention to a reality of pricing sometimes overlooked by
marketing planners. That reality is the concept of the price -- beyond the monetary price -- paid by
an individual in purchasing a good or a service, but especially in adopting an idea or taking a side on
an issue.

Many characteristics associated with a particular product offering are studied by marketers as
product attributes, while the possibility that these very characteristics may be perceived by
consumers as integral parts of the price paid in purchasing that product is overlooked. Thus the
amount of time spent waiting for attention at the doctor's office may in one context be construed as
an attribute of that form of health care service. However, viewed in another light. the time expended
might be seen as a non-monetary price paid in addition to the cash fee. Other non-monetary prices
include the effort expected of the habitual driver who turns to mass transit and the shame endured by
the adopter of the idea of a radically unusual hairstyle.

In any given situation, whether a characteristic is likely to be perceived as a product attribute or
as part of price will not always be obvious. The important concern to marketers is the determination
of which viewpoint suggests more effective strategies for marketing planning. That is, if consumers
do indeed perceive themselves as expending resources beyond money when they make purchases, it
becomes important for purveyors to take into account these "things'' given up in exchange for the
product offerings.

The price vs. product attribute distinction may be restated in terms of what has been called the
approach-avoidance concept. Product attributes comprise an approach vector because they attract
the consumer whereas price factors repel him or her. The latter are components of an avoidance
vector. The model thus has an element of pleasure/pain theory built into it (Seth 1980). These
considerations have their most obvious usefulness in the planning of promotional strategy, but they
may also be important in the design of the product itself


Price is the most quantifiable, tractable and readily analyzed element in the marketing mix. It is
virtually the only marketing factor addressed by economists. Price is generally defined as “the
amount of goods, services, money value of the same, (that is) set as the required payment given by
the buyer for some amount of goods or services offered by the seller (Alpert 1971, p. 4). This
definition applies whether the price is called admission, assessment, charge, collection,
compensation, contribution, dues, fare, fine, fee, honorarium, levy, interest, penalty, premium, rent,
reward, tariff, tax, toll, or tuition.

The Monetary And Social Components Of PriceThe price construct has two components. One is that which is most generally associated with
price, the price paid in cash by the buyer to the seller. The other is a non-monetary or intrinsic
component extending beyond money, which is "paid'' by the buyer in every type of exchange:
… the price can also be non-monetary. Thus it can include many things more personal than money,
such as time, effort, love, power, prestige, pride, friendship and the like. Alcoholics Anonymous, for
example, charges a very high price -commitment not to drink and public admission of one's problem.
The Third Nail, a drug rehabilitation center, expects its clients to abstain from drugs and to contribute
time and effort toward the maintenance of the center 

It is suggested that non-financial prices be formally distinguished from money prices and the
appellation social price be assigned to the former. Other terms could be used: ancillary price,

supplemental price, collateral price, intangible price, intrinsic price, symbolic price, psychic price,
etc. But the term social price seems most appropriate particularly since it resonates well within the
domain of social marketing. The notion of social price is exemplified in such everyday remarks as
"We paid dearly for ... ," or "Freedom at any price;" one is said to "spend" time and "pay" respect
and attention.


Price, as a controllable strategic marketing factor, is given added importance through the
awareness of its nonfinancial component, p , in expression (1). In the same way that ordinary prices
are "set," so too should social prices be employed by incorporating into the marketing mix, those
considerations perceived by consumers to constitute their total contribution to the exchange
transaction and not just the cash component. This awareness could uncover new promotional
opportunities with such themes as "The time you save may be your own," and so on. The four price
categories outlined above also suggest dimensions for "price positioning" a product offering against
competing products, an exercise that could enhance the product planning process.
The concept has particular significance with respect to those exchanges falling within the domain
of social marketing. For example, advocates of social change are virtually unanimous about the
positive effects of participation in the planning process by those to be affected by rhe program (see
for example, Bradshaw and Mapp 1972). Yet such participation ordinarily means "payment" by
target consumers of all four types of social price described in this chapter. It seems plausible to
conclude that it is precisely because participation is so "expensive" that it is so desirable. People
want to feel that they have some control in the shaping of their destiny. They are willing to invest in
such control and indeed are uncomfortable if participation is not available to them for "purchase.”

Implications For Further InvestigationLike their financial counterparts, social prices can be psychological prices, that is, those perceived
by consumers to be surrogate measures of product quality -- the higher the price paid, the higher the
quality attributed to the product and conversely. This area has been well explored in connection with
monetary price and one may conjecture that conclusions ought to be quite similar with respect to
social price. Are we not more suspect of the quality of the food at a restaurant if on a Sunday
evening. there is no wait for a table?

Economic principles provide contexts within which social price may be further examined. One of
these is the notion of consumers' surplus. the excess of price that the consumer would be willing to
pay rather than go without a given product over that price actually paid. Another is indifference
curve analysis. The consumer is said to be indifferent as to which of many combinations of goods
are to comprise an optimum market basket subject to the constraint of a given monetary income. In a
similar vein, can one speak of an optimal bundle of adoptable concepts, subject to constraints of
available time, effort and so forth? It is hoped that such threads may be woven by interested
consumer researchers into meaningful extensions of concepts 

Wednesday, 19 April 2017


A few years ago a man named John Adams won the Republican nomination in New Hampshire's
First Congressional District. Mr. Adams was an unemployed taxi driver who did almost no
campaigning. He made no speeches, issued no press releases, spent no money. He figured that with
a name like his he didn't need to. People choose products, including political candidates, based on
the familiarity of the name (Newsweek, September 27, 1976
The motivating objective in branding strategy is the creation of habitual purchase of the product
by consumers. A brand name, once remembered, vastly facilitates repeat purchase because the
product and its name become closely associated with each other. In fact, successful branding
strategy results in a name that becomes virtually synonymous with the product and often carries
more status than the product itself. Thus one is more likely to contribute to campaigns of The United
Way than to just any program of combined charities. People quickly develop confidence in a
branded product and enjoy peace of mind from the perceived assurance that a "good buy" was made.
They also perceive higher degrees of quality and reliability in a brand, all of which increases
familarity and automatic and loyal devotion to the brand. While many Americans abide by the 55
mile per hour speed limit, the state of Connecticut developed a particular reputation for diligence in
policing speed laws. It's campaign assumed the status of a respected brand, the Connecticut Speed
Laws, which stood out among those of neighboring areas. Upon entering Connecticut's highways,
drivers became especially aware of their speedometers.

A brand name should be promoted with the goal of making it well known, respected and even
generic. At the same time the assignment of a brand to a concept serves as an incentive to the
sponsoring organization to create and maintain high standards. For long-term welfare of the firm,
the producer of a branded item tolerates nothing but high-quality output.
The very name of the sponsoring organization or movement serves as an appropriate brand for an
idea. Examples are Boy Scouts, Christian Dior, Goodwill Industries, ERA, Gay Rights, NORMAL
(National Organization for Repeal of Marijuana Laws), I Love New York, WIN (Whip Inflation
Now), Boys Town, Red Cross, New Deal and CIA. The appropriateness of the brand name cannot
be overemphasized. Thus an organization promoting education for Hispanics is called Aspira,
Spanish for "aspire," and a museum in San Francisco calls itself The Exploratorium.
Criticizing institutions for neglecting the socio-linguistics of innovations, Rogers and LeonardBarton (1978) pointed out that "what an innovation is called often is an important factor in its

They offered as an example government family planning programs in India, where contraceptives
are taboo because they are believed to be associated with prostitution. Marketers applied a theory
from the field of anthropological linguistics to the problem and changed the name of condoms from
"F.L.," or "French Letters," to "Nirodh," a Sanskrit word for "protection.” As a result of the name
change, audience perceptions were altered and acceptance improved appreciably, according to postpromotion research.

How are ideas packaged? In the context of the promotion of nutrition information, the question
was put to a public health official of a third world country. He replied, "You can't sell sound
nutrition practice in a vacuum; you must package it together with such ideas as clean water,
sanitation and preventive medical care.” The implication is one that is common in conventional
marketing, for example, the idea of "accessorizing" in the sale of clothing. The salesperson suggests
a handbag and gloves while completing the sale of a pair of shoes.

Yet one rarely sees joint campaigns for such related causes as gun con trol and support the police,
responsible pet ownership and antivivisection, or scouting and forest fire prevention. One might
propose to the "I Love New York" promoters a package of traffic amelioration through carpooling or
mass transit for visiting several points of interest, centers of performing arts, museums and so on -the
possibilities are endless. Energy conservation can be wrapped up in the same "box" as pollution
control, shop by bicycle and physical fitness (Fine 1980b). A good deal of synergy derives from
combining the efforts of organizations espousing innovations that can be linked together in some

The words of a great poem are no more beautiful when set in fancy type and printed in a
handsomely bound volume than when the poet first scrawled them on scratch paper. Yet, until the
poem was attractively packaged, few could appreciate it. A scholar presents a new theory by
packaging carefully written sentences into an article, which is delivered to a consuming audience.
Indeed, the term "vehicle" is used to mean a journal said to "carry" the article. Abstract products
need the application of correspondingly intangible packaging principles.

Product Positioning
The strategy by which the marketer attempts to carve a unique niche for a product within a
marketplace of competing products is called product positioning. It is employed with the objective
of finding differential advantage for the product. Comparison is made on the basis of those
characteristics or attributes (taste, color, texture, durability) deemed most relevant. The use of
product attributes as a basis is rooted in the mathematical concept of space such as the twodimensional space depicted by an x-y plane. The point (3,2) for example, is positioned by counting
off three units along the x axis (dimension) and two units along the y. If the variables x and y are
specified to represent respectively, power and fuel economy, then an automobile, may similarly be
positioned in that "product space.” Of course, automobiles like all other products, possess more than
just two attributes, but only two may be drawn on a two-dimensional sheet of paper.
One could draw a three-dimensional product space and include another attribute, say, length,
legroom, or some other pertinent attribute. More attributes yield a more thorough positioning
process. Marketing researchers have a procedure called multidimensional scaling for statistically
exploring virtually any number of attributes. This analytic technique makes it possible to
simultaneously compare competing products on the basis of many dimensions.

To translate the idea of product positioning from the realm of tangibles to that of concepts, one
need consider the set of attributes appropriate to ideas and social issues as defined in Chapter 1 --
relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability. In addition to these
universal attributes, specific products may be identified by some unique attributes. Thus the idea of
using motorcycle helmets ranks high on the attribute of trialability, because one is not forced to buy
"all or nothing," as with the adoption of vasectomy. Trialability is a universal attribute; that is,
virtually all concepts can be measured along a trialability dimension. But helmet use advocacy can

also be rated, for example, on a convenience continuum, which is applicable to only some concepts.
A comprehensive program of product positioning takes into account both the universal and the
product specific attributes. But it is not an easy task to operationalize attributes of concepts:
In the marketing context, it is very difficult to define the attributes of brands that give rise to
differences in the worth of those brands. Describing the value-generating attributes of social
alternatives is even more difficult....
While attributes are objective descriptors inherent the design of the product, they may or may
not constitute the precise criteria on which consumers make the purchase decision. Individuals make
subjective perceptions or interpretations about attributes. These are called choice criteria: It is
essential to distinguish between the attributes per se and consumers' perceptions of these attributes,
because consumers differ in their perceptions. It is the perception that affects behavior, not the
attribute itself
It is tempting for a marketer to specify attributes and to construct a "product space" containing
those attributes as dimensions. But that is a producer-oriented view. More meaningful, although
more difficult to conceive, is a preference map the dimensions of which are not attributes but choice
criteria. Ideally, positioning should be based on consumer perceptions.

  Product Differentiation

Product differentiation is the practice of rendering one product different from another. The
difference might be real, for example, in design, color, package, or it could be a difference perceived
by the consumer, as when high quality is attributed to something because a high price was paid for it,
or because it was purchased from a prestigious merchant. A strategy of product differentiation may
enable the marketer to position a new product (or reposition an existing one) as distinctly different
from other products already on the market. This strategy may have two underlying objectives: 1.
To justify a difference in pricing or method of promotion and 2. to cater to unique needs of some
particular market segment.

Clearly, product differentiation strategy follows logically from that of market segmentation. If
segmentation research reveals the existence of sub-markets having unique needs or tastes and if
those markets are large enough so as to be worthwhile to cultivate, then it makes sense to offer a
product to match the unique needs of each group. Writing about knowledge considered as an
innovation, Zaltman (1979) states: An innovation-related guideline is: If discernibly different user
groups exist, consideration should be given to the need for correspondingly differentiated
knowledge. It may be necessary to design different versions of an item of knowledge to maximally
satisfy different user characteristics.

The strategy of product differentiation or what might in this book be called concept
differentiation is implemented by adding a unique twist to the product offering. .For example
proponents of minimum wage laws might think of codicil ensuring some level of productivity to
employers. The school prayer issue might have been presented with a provision permitting
individual prayers. The "Save Chrysler" campaign planners, aware of differences in various
audiences, beamed different messages to labor, to business interests and to government officialdom.
Sometimes a product is differentiated to so large a degree that it assumes an entirely new form -the
subject of the next section.

Product Form
A social product is available in various forms just as, for example, an automobile may be had in
the form of a sedan, compact and so forth and health services might be obtained in preventive, or
ambulatory form or by recorded phone call (Tel-Med). Summer school is one form of the class of
products called education. The form in which a product is to be marketed depends upon the nature
of the need to be satisfied by the particular offering. An example is seen in the concept of nutrition.
The form taken by a nutrition program depends on the type of malnutrition it is to relieve. Nutrition
researchers at an eastern medical college have found that certain maladies of the elderly are vitamin
based and have developed a malnourishment preventive package for the aged. Where the problem is
inefficient overconsumption of meat (three to six pounds of grain are needed to yield one pound of
most meats), the idea is to espouse mitigation of such waste. This is the situation in many
postindustrial societies such as the United States. Other types of over-nourishment similarly call for
demarketing. The lifestyle of the sit-down family dinner is giving way in America to rushed

"And no sooner is the table cleared and dishes washed, then the eating starts again. Someone makes a
sandwich. Older kids go out for a while, come back with friends, fix food and do homework together,
or sit in front of the TV and snack.” A bedtime snack is the rule, not the exception, says Dr. Fine and
even then it doesn't end "People can't sleep, they are restless, they are hungry. They get up and raid
the 'fridge,' the pantry for cereal, eat apples and cheese, raid the leftovers they would not eat at dinner"
Griff and Mead suggest replacing the "Good for you and good tasting concept" of marketing
themes with the idea of "pleasure in moderation," an idea already provided by the alcoholic beverage
In most other parts of the world, of course, the problem is undernourishment. There programs
must assume the form of a scheme to assist the household in operating within the limits of its
nutritional resources in order to maximize for all members the benefits to be obtained from these
resources. The actual formulation of each particular malnourishment prescription in a given locale
will depend on which foods are most readily available, which are most compatible with current tastes
and preferences and to some extent, physiological tolerance to certain foods. For example, milk is an
excellent source of calories for all people but has differing tolerance response across racial types:
About 60% of Ashkenazi Jews have low tolerance for milk, while for Anglo-Saxons that figure is
10%. The U.S. recommended daily allowance (RDA) of calcium for a pregnant or lactating mother
is 1.3 grams, but whether this amount is obtained from milk, leafy vegetables, or citrus fruits will
depend on ethnic factors, among other things. One prominent nutritionist, David Call, attests to the
"complete lack of scientific consensus (on the particular prescription) among nutritionists in many
countries" (in Berg, Scrimshaw and Call 1973, p. 204).
The concept of product form suggests a strategy enabling the consumer to distinguish among
several types of product offerings. The aim is to make a unique type available to suit distinct needs
of each market segment.

The Product Life Cycle (PLC)
As with living organisms, most products follow a cycle from their inception, through periods of
growth and to eventual demise. Marketers are interested in knowing just where along the product
life cycle a given offering resides at a given point in time. Each stage could require a specific
marketing mix with different combinations of promotion, pricing (not necessarily dollar pricing -see
Chapter 5) and distribution components. Social products similarly follow stages analogous to the
pattern hypothetically assumed for ordinary products and in fact insights into the life cycle of social
movements are covered in sociological writings. Calling these "stages in the life cycle of a cause,"
Kotler (1971a) presented a scheme reproduced

In the crusading stage, a primary goal is to enlist followers. A large number of supporters is
crucial because early adopters are known to comprise an important word-of-mouth channel.
Furthermore, idea marketers need a large following if only so that later promotion messages can
boast of having many advocates. For example, the idea of carpooling is being touted by mass transit
organizations and various interstate transportation authorities. That idea is likely to become more
popular, as will the use of solar energy, with continued increases in fuel costs. On the other hand,
nudism seems destined to remain within an early stage for a variety of reasons, including societal
reactions to nudism and nudists' feelings about those reactions. Similarly, adoption of the metric
system must overcome deeply rooted habits. The crusade of the idea of nuclear power by utilities is
also meeting with popular resistance. Such ideas remain in the crusading stage for a long time.

Tuesday, 18 April 2017


Market segmentation is the partitioning of a market of consumers according to some criterion in
order that marketing planning may be custom tailored to suit the unique needs of each segment. By
catering to differing characteristics possessed by several sub-markets, it is hoped that deeper overall
penetration of the target population will be accomplished. A prerequisite for a segmentation study is
the selection of a criterion most likely to account for differential response to the four controllable
marketing factors and on the basis of that criterion, partitioning the market, that is forming submarkets such that each sub-market is different in some way from the others. Ideally the differences
between these groups should be indicative of the unique manner by which each group responds to
differences in product offerings and/or to differences in the promotion strategy planned by the

Segmentation research is typically carried out by consumer survey. The survey instrument
contains questions designed to take measurements not only on the segmentation criterion.usually
selected in advance, but also questions to measure other characteristics (variables) about the
consumer. Together, the discriminating criterion as well as the other characteristics make up the
total set of variables in the study. It is the average values on all these measurements that yield a
profile of characteristics for each segment, profiles providing some idea as to how the segments
differ. They offer clues as to how product design and promotional campaigns may be differentiated
for each segment.

How Many Segments?

The chief objective of segmentation is not merely to increase product acceptance, but to do so
efficiently. At the extremes either only one segment exists, that is, the market is presumed
completely homogeneous, or there are as many segments as individuals (completely heterogeneous).
How many should be specified? With fewer segments, the marketing task is simplified; appealing to
too many segments can become expensive and unwieldy. (In a Department of Transportation
campaign no less than 23 target audiences were identified for promoting the 55-mile-per-hour speed
limit;  Yet one wishes not to overlook significant differences between
target subgroups.
Ideally, a segment should be sufficiently large for it to be worthwhile cultivating with a custommade marketing mix. If too few customers make up a submarket, it usually will not pay to modify
the product, price, promotion, or distribution to suit those individuals. The optimum number of
segments, then, is a compromise between the largest number accounting for actual group differences
and the smallest number containing a worthwhile audience. Usually, clusters of segments can be
combined to form a smaller total number of segments.

Criteria for Segmentation

The crucial aspect of this process is the selection of the criterion upon which the segmentation
scheme is to be based. There is a large body of literature dealing with the choice of segmenting
criteria (see for example, Frank, Massy and Wind 1972). Of all the criteria upon which consumers
differ, which should be selected for a particular segmentation strategy? Virtually every product
suggests one or more criteria and one selects the criterion believed to be most relevant to the focus
product/situation. For example, to promote "Buy union label" one might segment on the basis of
preference for American goods versus imports; the marketer of legalized gambling could use some
attitudinal measure as a relevant criterion; a fair housing study might segment on frequency of job

In an empirical study of the social product, mass transit, Lovelock (Lovelock and Weinberg 1978)
segmented a market based upon various travel characteristics. Church nonmembers have been
segmented into three classes called resisters, disinterested and uninformed (Kotler 1980). A study in
India showed that interest in birth-control devices could be determined by examining external
features of the dwelling occupied by the family and Senator George McGovern's 1972 presidential
campaign strategists found that Volvo owners were a fruitful source of campaign contributions
(Dionne 1980). Finally, physical features such as terrain and rivers could play a role in segmenting
for what has been called spatial diffusion of innovation:

First, anything that moves must be carried in some way. Secondly, the rate at which some things
move over geographic space will be influenced by other things that get in the way. Thus we must
consider initially the carriers and the barriers that can influence particular movements . . . of ideas
spreading through a group of people .

Sometimes a total market of consumers is segmented not on one criterion, but by a broad
category defined by several criteria. The aim is to find different groups to address and to then plan
different means of approaching each.
In sumary, an effective segmentation program must ensure that:
1. The segmentation criterion selected is appropriate for the particular product.
2. Individuals belonging to different segments are likely to react differently to one or more
marketing policy instruments.
3. Those within a given segment demonstrate relatively homogenous behavior.
4. The number of segments formed is such that it is economically feasible to reach the most
important target groups.
5. Segments be sufficiently large and reachable so as to warrant individualized cultivation.
6. The program will lead to modification or manipulation of one or more marketing-mix
components. In other words, the newly identified segments should be addressed by modifying
the product